Threshold Estimation and Superthreshold Behavior of Ultrasound-Induced Lung Hemorrhage in Rats: Role of Age Dependency

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Age-dependent threshold and superthreshold behaviors of ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage were investigated with one hundred ten 12.6 ± 0.8-d-old rats, one hundred ten 22.9 ± 0.8-d-old rats, and one hundred 57.7 ± 3.9-d-old rats. Exposure conditions were: 2.8 MHz, 10-s exposure duration, 1-kHz pulse repetition frequency and 1.3-μs pulse duration. The in situ (at the pleural surface) peak rarefactional pressure (pr(in situ)) ranged between 1.4 and 10.8 MPa for which there were either 9 or 10 acoustic pressure groups for each of the three rat ages (10 rats/exposure group). For each of the three rat ages there were also shams; there were no lesions in the shams. The pr(in situ) levels were randomized within each age group; rat age was not randomized. Individuals involved in animal handling, exposure and lesion scoring were blinded to the exposure condition. In addition, one hundred fifty-six 72-d-old rats were included from three completed studies (same experimental conditions) to provide a fourth age group for the analysis. Probit regression analysis was used to examine the dependence of the occurrence of lesions on pr(in situ) in the four age groups. Likewise, lesion depth and lesion root surface area were analyzed using Gaussian tobit regression analysis. Although pr(in situ) was a significant variable, no significant age dependence of the pr(in situ) effect was found. Furthermore, age had no significant effect on either the rate of occurrence or the depth of lesions. Given the occurrence of a lesion, a weak age dependence was found for the median surface area of the induced lesion (p-value = 0.037). (E-mail:

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-135
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009


  • Lung
  • Pulmonary hemorrhage
  • Pulsed ultrasound
  • Rat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Biophysics
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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