Three-dimensional geologic modeling and visualization of the Virttaankangas aquifer, southwestern Finland

Aki Artimo, Joni Mäkinen, Richard C. Berg, Curtis C. Abert, Veli Pekka Salonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A need exists for a reliable and long-term water supply for the 285,000 inhabitants of the Turku area in southwestern Finland. In response to this need, there are plans to replace the present water supply from the surface sources with artificially infiltrated groundwater from a Quaternary esker aquifer called the Virttaankangas aquifer. New sedimentological studies of the Virttaankangas area have revealed the complexities of the esker system and its surrounding glacial, glaciofluvial, and glaciolacustrine geology. This led to the characterization of the hydrogeological units of the aquifer, the result of which has been a three-dimensional (3-D) truly integrated solids model that represents the geometry, interrelationships, and hydrostratigraphy of the study area. The 3-D model was made with Earth Vision geologic modeling software. The 3-D geological model of the Virttaankangas aquifer can be used for planning the infiltration of river water into the aquifer and to understand the geologic and geographic boundaries of the hydrogeologic units hosting the groundwater reserve and the geologic relationships between the units. Another major outcome of this study is a powerful visualization tool that will be provided to municipal and government authorities who must understand the geologic complexities involved with water-resource planning prior to their decision making.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)378-386
Number of pages9
JournalHydrogeology Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2003


  • Esker aquifer
  • Geologic modeling
  • Hydrogeological units
  • Three-dimensional models
  • Visualization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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