Computed tomography (CT) and thoracic radiography were performed in nonsedated, nonanesthetized, cats with thoracic disease. The final diagnosis was obtained with echocardiography, cytology, histopathology, necropsy, or response to therapy. For CT imaging, cats were in a positioning device using a 16 multislice helical CT system. Fifty-four cats had CT imaging of which 50 had thoracic radiography. The most common diagnoses were lung neoplasia, lower airway disease, and cardiomyopathy (nine each). Other disease groups included mediastinal mass (eight), infection (seven), trauma (four), and hernia (three). CT provided additional correct diagnoses in 28% (14/50) and additional information in 74% (37/50) of the cats. Additional correct diagnoses achieved only with CT were most common for cats with lower airway disease. The most common additional findings with CT were lung nodules (n=4), lung masses (n=4), bronchiectasis (n=4), and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n=3). Survey CT led to a significant different diagnosis or different prognosis in 20 of the 50 cats that were imaged both modalities. Contrast CT was performed in 19 cats, most commonly in cats with lung neoplasia (n=6), a mediastinal mass (n=4) or an infection (n=3), and provided additional correct diagnosis in two cats not achieved with survey CT. Thoracic CT using a positioning device in diseased awake cats is feasible, safe, and clinically useful.
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