Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase influence estrogen receptor α-mediated gene expression in human breast cancer cells

Abhi K. Rao, Yvonne S. Ziegler, Ian X. McLeod, John R. Yates, Ann M. Nardulli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells damages resident proteins, lipids, and DNA. In order to overcome the oxidative stress that occurs with ROS accumulation, cells must balance free radical production with an increase in the level of antioxidant enzymes that convert free radicals to less harmful species. We identified two antioxidant enzymes, thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx reductase (TrxR), in a complex associated with the DNA-bound estrogen receptor α (ERα). Western analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to demonstrate that Trx and TrxR are expressed in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. More importantly, endogenously expressed ERα, Trx, and TrxR interact and ERα and TrxR associate with the native, estrogen-responsive pS2 and progesterone receptor genes in MCF-7 cells. RNA interference assays demonstrated that Trx and TrxR differentially influence estrogen-responsive gene expression and that together, 17β-estradiol, Trx, and TrxR alter hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2) levels in MCF-7 cells. Our findings suggest that Trx and TrxR are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to modulating H2O 2 levels and transcription factor activity, aid ERα in regulating the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in target cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-261
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Molecular Endocrinology
Volume43
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology

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