Theoretical Concerns in Networks of Protected Areas: Symmetry and Asymmetry

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


The migratory bird treaty of1916 exhibits symmetry in three dimensions: a migratory species, land managers with shared goals, and stakeholders with shared goals that are largely consistent with manager goals. This is the basic model for a politically-successful network of protected areas. Changing any one of these three conditions may make a network politically infeasible. Interestingly, changing two of these conditions simultaneously may be conducive to successful management. This simple analytical framework can explain variation in successful and unsuccessful networks managing species such as migratory birds, bison, and wolves, as well as marine resources. This analysis makes policy recommendations conditional on both the type of the bio-logical resource, and on key features of the political matrix within which networks exist.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRethinking Protected Areas in a Changing World
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 2011 GWS Biennial Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites
EditorsSamantha Weber
PublisherThe George Wright Society
StatePublished - 2012


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