The XXL Survey: II. the bright cluster sample: Catalogue and luminosity function

F. Pacaud, N. Clerc, P. A. Giles, C. Adami, T. Sadibekova, M. Pierre, B. J. Maughan, M. Lieu, J. P. Le Fèvre, S. Alis, B. Altieri, F. Ardila, I. Baldry, C. Benoist, M. Birkinshaw, L. Chiappetti, J. Démoclès, D. Eckert, A. E. Evrard, L. FaccioliF. Gastaldello, L. Guennou, C. Horellou, A. Iovino, E. Koulouridis, V. Le Brun, C. Lidman, J. Liske, S. Maurogordato, Felipe Menanteau, M. Owers, B. Poggianti, D. Pomarède, E. Pompei, T. J. Ponman, D. Rapetti, T. H. Reiprich, G. P. Smith, R. Tuffs, P. Valageas, I. Valtchanov, J. P. Willis, F. Ziparo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMM-Newton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the large-scale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. The survey will ultimately uncover several hundreds of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of ∼2 at a sensitivity of ∼10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band. Aims. This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of 3 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 on the source flux within a 1' aperture. Methods. The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic follow-up provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate X-ray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were self-consistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On this basis, we study the number density, luminosity function, and spatial distribution of the sample. Results. The bright cluster sample consists of systems with masses between M500 = 7 × 1013 and 3 × 1014 M, mostly located between z = 0.1 and 0.5. The observed sky density of clusters is slightly below the predictions from the WMAP9 model, and significantly below the prediction from the Planck 2015 cosmology. In general, within the current uncertainties of the cluster mass calibration, models with higher values of σ8 and/or ΩM appear more difficult to accommodate. We provide tight constraints on the cluster differential luminosity function and find no hint of evolution out to z ∼1. We also find strong evidence for the presence of large-scale structures in the XXL bright cluster sample and identify five new superclusters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA2
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume592
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Fingerprint

catalogs
luminosity
erg
cosmology
prediction
tracer
spatial distribution
calibration
galaxies
simulation
large-scale structure of the universe
XMM-Newton telescope
predictions
distribution
active galactic nuclei
newton
tracers
sky
apertures
scaling

Keywords

  • Cosmological parameters
  • Galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
  • Large-scale structure of Universe
  • Surveys
  • X-rays: galaxies: clusters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Pacaud, F., Clerc, N., Giles, P. A., Adami, C., Sadibekova, T., Pierre, M., ... Ziparo, F. (2016). The XXL Survey: II. the bright cluster sample: Catalogue and luminosity function. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 592, [A2]. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526891

The XXL Survey : II. the bright cluster sample: Catalogue and luminosity function. / Pacaud, F.; Clerc, N.; Giles, P. A.; Adami, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Pierre, M.; Maughan, B. J.; Lieu, M.; Le Fèvre, J. P.; Alis, S.; Altieri, B.; Ardila, F.; Baldry, I.; Benoist, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Démoclès, J.; Eckert, D.; Evrard, A. E.; Faccioli, L.; Gastaldello, F.; Guennou, L.; Horellou, C.; Iovino, A.; Koulouridis, E.; Le Brun, V.; Lidman, C.; Liske, J.; Maurogordato, S.; Menanteau, Felipe; Owers, M.; Poggianti, B.; Pomarède, D.; Pompei, E.; Ponman, T. J.; Rapetti, D.; Reiprich, T. H.; Smith, G. P.; Tuffs, R.; Valageas, P.; Valtchanov, I.; Willis, J. P.; Ziparo, F.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 592, A2, 01.01.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Pacaud, F, Clerc, N, Giles, PA, Adami, C, Sadibekova, T, Pierre, M, Maughan, BJ, Lieu, M, Le Fèvre, JP, Alis, S, Altieri, B, Ardila, F, Baldry, I, Benoist, C, Birkinshaw, M, Chiappetti, L, Démoclès, J, Eckert, D, Evrard, AE, Faccioli, L, Gastaldello, F, Guennou, L, Horellou, C, Iovino, A, Koulouridis, E, Le Brun, V, Lidman, C, Liske, J, Maurogordato, S, Menanteau, F, Owers, M, Poggianti, B, Pomarède, D, Pompei, E, Ponman, TJ, Rapetti, D, Reiprich, TH, Smith, GP, Tuffs, R, Valageas, P, Valtchanov, I, Willis, JP & Ziparo, F 2016, 'The XXL Survey: II. the bright cluster sample: Catalogue and luminosity function', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 592, A2. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526891
Pacaud, F. ; Clerc, N. ; Giles, P. A. ; Adami, C. ; Sadibekova, T. ; Pierre, M. ; Maughan, B. J. ; Lieu, M. ; Le Fèvre, J. P. ; Alis, S. ; Altieri, B. ; Ardila, F. ; Baldry, I. ; Benoist, C. ; Birkinshaw, M. ; Chiappetti, L. ; Démoclès, J. ; Eckert, D. ; Evrard, A. E. ; Faccioli, L. ; Gastaldello, F. ; Guennou, L. ; Horellou, C. ; Iovino, A. ; Koulouridis, E. ; Le Brun, V. ; Lidman, C. ; Liske, J. ; Maurogordato, S. ; Menanteau, Felipe ; Owers, M. ; Poggianti, B. ; Pomarède, D. ; Pompei, E. ; Ponman, T. J. ; Rapetti, D. ; Reiprich, T. H. ; Smith, G. P. ; Tuffs, R. ; Valageas, P. ; Valtchanov, I. ; Willis, J. P. ; Ziparo, F. / The XXL Survey : II. the bright cluster sample: Catalogue and luminosity function. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2016 ; Vol. 592.
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abstract = "Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMM-Newton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the large-scale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. The survey will ultimately uncover several hundreds of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of ∼2 at a sensitivity of ∼10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band. Aims. This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of 3 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 on the source flux within a 1' aperture. Methods. The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic follow-up provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate X-ray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were self-consistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On this basis, we study the number density, luminosity function, and spatial distribution of the sample. Results. The bright cluster sample consists of systems with masses between M500 = 7 × 1013 and 3 × 1014 M⊙, mostly located between z = 0.1 and 0.5. The observed sky density of clusters is slightly below the predictions from the WMAP9 model, and significantly below the prediction from the Planck 2015 cosmology. In general, within the current uncertainties of the cluster mass calibration, models with higher values of σ8 and/or ΩM appear more difficult to accommodate. We provide tight constraints on the cluster differential luminosity function and find no hint of evolution out to z ∼1. We also find strong evidence for the presence of large-scale structures in the XXL bright cluster sample and identify five new superclusters.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The XXL Survey

T2 - II. the bright cluster sample: Catalogue and luminosity function

AU - Pacaud, F.

AU - Clerc, N.

AU - Giles, P. A.

AU - Adami, C.

AU - Sadibekova, T.

AU - Pierre, M.

AU - Maughan, B. J.

AU - Lieu, M.

AU - Le Fèvre, J. P.

AU - Alis, S.

AU - Altieri, B.

AU - Ardila, F.

AU - Baldry, I.

AU - Benoist, C.

AU - Birkinshaw, M.

AU - Chiappetti, L.

AU - Démoclès, J.

AU - Eckert, D.

AU - Evrard, A. E.

AU - Faccioli, L.

AU - Gastaldello, F.

AU - Guennou, L.

AU - Horellou, C.

AU - Iovino, A.

AU - Koulouridis, E.

AU - Le Brun, V.

AU - Lidman, C.

AU - Liske, J.

AU - Maurogordato, S.

AU - Menanteau, Felipe

AU - Owers, M.

AU - Poggianti, B.

AU - Pomarède, D.

AU - Pompei, E.

AU - Ponman, T. J.

AU - Rapetti, D.

AU - Reiprich, T. H.

AU - Smith, G. P.

AU - Tuffs, R.

AU - Valageas, P.

AU - Valtchanov, I.

AU - Willis, J. P.

AU - Ziparo, F.

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMM-Newton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the large-scale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. The survey will ultimately uncover several hundreds of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of ∼2 at a sensitivity of ∼10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band. Aims. This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of 3 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 on the source flux within a 1' aperture. Methods. The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic follow-up provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate X-ray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were self-consistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On this basis, we study the number density, luminosity function, and spatial distribution of the sample. Results. The bright cluster sample consists of systems with masses between M500 = 7 × 1013 and 3 × 1014 M⊙, mostly located between z = 0.1 and 0.5. The observed sky density of clusters is slightly below the predictions from the WMAP9 model, and significantly below the prediction from the Planck 2015 cosmology. In general, within the current uncertainties of the cluster mass calibration, models with higher values of σ8 and/or ΩM appear more difficult to accommodate. We provide tight constraints on the cluster differential luminosity function and find no hint of evolution out to z ∼1. We also find strong evidence for the presence of large-scale structures in the XXL bright cluster sample and identify five new superclusters.

AB - Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMM-Newton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the large-scale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. The survey will ultimately uncover several hundreds of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of ∼2 at a sensitivity of ∼10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band. Aims. This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of 3 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 on the source flux within a 1' aperture. Methods. The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic follow-up provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate X-ray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were self-consistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On this basis, we study the number density, luminosity function, and spatial distribution of the sample. Results. The bright cluster sample consists of systems with masses between M500 = 7 × 1013 and 3 × 1014 M⊙, mostly located between z = 0.1 and 0.5. The observed sky density of clusters is slightly below the predictions from the WMAP9 model, and significantly below the prediction from the Planck 2015 cosmology. In general, within the current uncertainties of the cluster mass calibration, models with higher values of σ8 and/or ΩM appear more difficult to accommodate. We provide tight constraints on the cluster differential luminosity function and find no hint of evolution out to z ∼1. We also find strong evidence for the presence of large-scale structures in the XXL bright cluster sample and identify five new superclusters.

KW - Cosmological parameters

KW - Galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium

KW - Large-scale structure of Universe

KW - Surveys

KW - X-rays: galaxies: clusters

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