The X-ray planetary nebulae database

Martín A. Guerrero, Yoo Hua Chu, Robert A. Gruendl

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Planetary nebulae (PNe) are one of the latest additions to the zoo of X-ray sources. XMM-Newton and Chandra observations have finally detected diffuse X-ray emission from shocked fast winds in PN interiors and from bow-shocks of fast collimated outflows impinging on nebular envelopes. These X-ray observations have produced exquisite images and invaluable spectra of PNe that allow us to examine the spatial distribution and physical properties of hot gas in PN interiors. However, X-ray observations of PNe have not been optimally used, as papers reporting X-ray analysis of PN emission applied preliminary calibrations and methods which have since been significantly improved, and X-ray observations of PNe resulting in non-detections are often left in the archive without appearing in the literature. To present a homogeneous analysis of recent X-ray observations of PNe, we introduce the XPN Database webpage,, which highlights all XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of PNe that are available in the archives. We have processed these observations using the most up-to-date calibration files and we make the data at different processing levels available to the astronomical community through this webpage. These X-ray observations have been analyzed consistently using the most recent versions of SAS and CIAO. Statistical analyses of the X-ray and physical properties of PNe can yield crucial constraints on the formation and evolution of PNe.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationX-ray Universe 2005
Number of pages2
StatePublished - Apr 10 2006
EventX-ray Universe 2005 - Madrid, Spain
Duration: Sep 26 2005Sep 30 2005

Publication series

NameEuropean Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP
ISSN (Print)0379-6566


OtherX-ray Universe 2005


  • Planetary Nebulae
  • X-rays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Space and Planetary Science


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