The trichoptera barcode initiative: A strategy for generating a species-level tree of life

Xin Zhou, Paul B. Frandsen, Ralph W. Holzenthal, Clare R. Beet, Kristi R. Bennett, Roger J. Blahnik, Núria Bonada, David Cartwright, Suvdtsetseg Chuluunbat, Graeme V. Cocks, Gemma E. Collins, Jeremy Dewaard, John Dean, Oliver S. Flint, Axel Hausmann, Lars Hendrich, Monika Hess, Ian D. Hogg, Boris C. Kondratieff, Hans MalickyMegan A. Milton, Jérôme Morinière, John C. Morse, François Ngera Mwangi, Steffen U. Pauls, María Razo Gonzalez, Aki Rinne, Jason L. Robinson, Juha Salokannel, Michael Shackleton, Brian Smith, Lexandros Stamatakis, Ros St Clair, Jessica A. Thomas, Carmen Zamora-Muñoz, Tanja Ziesmann, Karl M. Kjer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


DNA barcoding was intended as a means to provide species-level identifications through associating DNA sequences from unknown specimens to those from curated reference specimens. Although barcodes were not designed for phylogenetics, they can be beneficial to the completion of the Tree of Life. The barcode database for Trichoptera is relatively comprehensive, with data from every family, approximately two-thirds of the genera, and one-third of the described species. Most Trichoptera, as with most of life’s species, have never been subjected to any formal phylogenetic analysis. Here, we present a phylogeny with over 16 000 unique haplotypes as a working hypothesis that can be updated as our estimates improve. We suggest a strategy of implementing constrained tree searches, which allow larger datasets to dictate the backbone phylogeny, while the barcode data fill out the tips of the tree. We also discuss how this phylogeny could be used to focus taxonomic attention on ambiguous species boundaries and hidden biodiversity. We suggest that systematists continue to differentiate between ‘Barcode Index Numbers’ (BINs) and ‘species’ that have been formally described. Each has utility, but they are not synonyms. We highlight examples of integrative taxonomy, using both barcodes and morphology for species description.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20160025
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1702
StatePublished - Sep 5 2016


  • Caddisfly
  • DNA barcodes
  • Integrative taxonomy
  • Phylogeny

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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