The time-keeping anomaly of energy-saving sensors: Manifestation, solution, and a structural monitoring case study

Parya Moinzadeh, Kirill Mechitov, Reza Shiftehfar, Tarek Abdelzaher, Gul Agha, Billie F. Spencer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Saving energy is one of the principal challenges in wireless sensor networks. Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is often used to reduce energy consumption in systems where sleep is not an option. We show that changing the CPU frequency introduces sudden changes in clock behavior, thereby affecting the time-keeping functionality. This anomalous phenomenon is observed in different sensor platforms and causes a loss of time synchronization among nodes that is unacceptable to applications such as structural health monitoring that require tightly synchronized clocks over extended periods. The paper provides experimental measurements of the clock value shift anomaly in three widely used wireless sensor platforms and its impact on clock synchronization costs. A general framework balancing the need to save energy against the need to keep clocks synchronized is developed. Our system is implemented and evaluated on a network of sensors deployed on a truss bridge and running a high-fidelity structural health monitoring application. Experimental measurements confirm the efficacy of the solution in saving energy while maintaining an acceptable level of synchronization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2012 9th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, SECON 2012
Pages380-388
Number of pages9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2012
Event2012 9th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, SECON 2012 - Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Duration: Jun 18 2012Jun 21 2012

Publication series

NameAnnual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks workshops
Volume1
ISSN (Print)2155-5486
ISSN (Electronic)2155-5494

Other

Other2012 9th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, SECON 2012
CountryKorea, Republic of
CitySeoul
Period6/18/126/21/12

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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    Moinzadeh, P., Mechitov, K., Shiftehfar, R., Abdelzaher, T., Agha, G., & Spencer, B. F. (2012). The time-keeping anomaly of energy-saving sensors: Manifestation, solution, and a structural monitoring case study. In 2012 9th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, SECON 2012 (pp. 380-388). [6275801] (Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks workshops; Vol. 1). https://doi.org/10.1109/SECON.2012.6275801