The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of power ultrasound processes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Most high intensity or power ultrasound applications involve a special transmission mode of sound waves in a medium that is composed of consecutive compressions and rarefactions. Since the propagation of such longitudinal waves is normally associated with a liquid medium, the use of power ultrasound is often termed as sonication. When the negative pressure in the rarefaction phase surpasses the tensile stress of the liquid, the liquid will be torn apart and cavities will be formed (Leighton, 1994). The inception of cavitation and the subsequent mechanical and chemical effects rising from the cavitation activity enable interactions between the acoustic energy and food and biological systems being processed. Such interactions take place at microscopic levels as the average diameters of cavitation bubbles are at 150–170 μm, for bubbles generated in water by 20 kHz ultrasound transducers (Awad, 1996; Vago, 1992).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationFood Engineering Series
Number of pages17
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

Publication series

NameFood Engineering Series
ISSN (Print)1571-0297


  • Acoustic energy
  • Inactivation curve
  • Inactivation rate
  • Lethal factor
  • Ultrasound treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Bioengineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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