The surface of the empirical horopter

Kai M. Schreiber, James M. Hillis, Heather R. Filippini, Clifton M. Schor, Martin S. Banks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The distribution of empirical corresponding points in the two retinas has been well studied along the horizontal and the vertical meridians, but nof ih other parts of the visual field. Using an apparent-motion paradigm, we measured the positions of those point-across the central portion of the visual field. We found that the Hering-Hillebrand deviation (a deviation from the Vieth-Müller circle) and the Heimholtz shear of horizontal disparity (backward slant of the vertical horopter) exist throughout the visual field. We also found no evidence for non-zero vertical disparities in empirical corresponding -points. We used the data to find the combination of points in space and binocular eye position that minimizes the disparity between stimulated points on the retinas and the empirical corresponding points. The optimum surface is a top-back slanted surface at medium to far distance depending on the observer. The line in the middle of the surface extending away from the observer comes very close to lying in the plane of the ground as the observer fixates various positions in the ground, a speculation Helmholtz made that has since been misunderstood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7
JournalJournal of vision
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 12 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Correspondence
  • Horopter
  • Stereo vision
  • Stereopsis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems


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