The Sport Facilitators in Later Life Scale (SFLLS): Preliminary evidence of reliability and validity

Julie Son, Stephanie West, Toni Liechty, Megan Janke, Jill Juris, Jen Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a newly proposed scale, the Sport Facilitators in Later Life Scale (SFLLS). Based on empirical work, the authors developed a 30-item scale to measure middle-aged and older adults’ recreational sport facilitators, including items on municipal parks- and recreation-based facilitators. Among a national sample of 1207 adults aged 50 and older, factor analysis supported a three-factor structure of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural facilitators, with interpersonal facilitators as the principal factor. Alpha coefficients indicated good reliability of the subscales and total scale. Measurement invariance tests using multigroup CFA indicated strict scale equivalence by age, gender, education, retirement status, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Significant correlations and regressions provided further support for the validity of the scale. Additional scale refinement and psychometric testing should be undertaken to determine generalizability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Leisure Research
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Sport and aging
  • enablers
  • invariance testing
  • reliability and validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


Dive into the research topics of 'The Sport Facilitators in Later Life Scale (SFLLS): Preliminary evidence of reliability and validity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this