In this paper we develop a general theory of the spin dynamics of anisotropic Fermi superfluids of the generalized BCS type, under conditions which should be realistic for any such phase of liquid 3He occurring below 3 mK. No restrictions are placed on the nature of the pairing configuration. The system is described in terms of the total spin vector S, and a vector T(n) which describes the amplitude and spin quantization axes of the pairs forming at a given point n on the Fermi surface; the kinematic relations between these quantities are emphasized. An approximation of the Born-Oppenheimer type is used to derive the general equations of motion of S and T; it is pointed out that relaxation of T due to collisions is inhibited by the coherent nature of the superfluid state. The equations of motion are solved for the particular case of unsaturated c.w. resonance, and it is shown that the nature of the transverse (usual) resonance spectrum is a strong function of the kind of configuration occurring; in particular, either one or two finite-frequency resonances may occur, depending on the configuration. A resonance is also predicted to occur when the r.f. field is polarized along the static external field. Specific predictions of the form of the transverse and "longitudinal" spectra are made for all the unitary l = 1 states, and it is shown that these predictions are unaffected by renormalization effects. The "Balian-Werthamer" state is predicted to show a longitudinal resonance but no transverse shift. The theory is compared with other approaches to the problem and its relevance to the anomalous low-temperature phases of liquid 3He is discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)