Spatial concentration gradients of antibiotics are prevalent in the natural environment. Yet, the microbial response in these heterogeneous systems remains poorly understood. We used a microfluidic reactor to create an artificial microscopic ecosystem that generates diffusive gradients of solutes across interconnected microenvironments. With this reactor, we showed that chemotaxis toward a soluble electron acceptor (nitrate) allowed Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to inhabit and sustain metabolic activity in highly toxic regions of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (>80× minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC). Acquired antibiotic resistance was not observed for cells extracted from the reactor, so we explored the role of transient adaptive resistance by probing multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps, ancient elements that are important for bacterial physiology and virulence. Accordingly, we constructed an efflux pump deficient mutant (∆mexF) and used resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). While batch results showed the importance of RND efflux pumps for microbial survival, microfluidic studies indicated that these pumps were not necessary for survival in antibiotic gradients. Our work contributes to an emerging body of knowledge deciphering the effects of antibiotic spatial heterogeneity on microorganisms and highlights differences of microbial response in these systems versus well-mixed batch conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics