The Rhoads site : a historic Kickapoo village on the Illinois prairie

Mark J. Wagner

Research output: Book/Report/Conference proceedingTechnical report


The Rhoads site represents the remains of a late eighteenth- to early nineteenth-century Kickapoo village burned by American soldiers during the War of 1812. The Kickapoo village appears to have been organized around a series of individual family compounds consisting of post structures, deep food storage pits, and open-air work areas that contained smudge pits for smoking animal hides. European-made artifacts recovered consisted almost entirely of items such as brass kettles, trade guns, and knives associated with the Great Lakes fur trade. The recovery of bone and antler tools and ornaments, stone smoking pipes, and ceramic figurines from the site also provided evidence of continuity with late prehistoric and early historic period native peoples within the same region.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Place of PublicationChampaign, IL :
PublisherIllinois State Archaeological Survey,
StatePublished - 2011

Publication series

NameISAS Studies in Archaeology v. 5


  • ISAS


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