The relative involvement of anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex in attentional control depends on nature of conflict

M. P. Milham, M. T. Banich, A. Webb, V. Barad, N. J. Cohen, T. Wszalek, A. F. Kramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


While numerous studies have implicated both anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex in attentional control, the nature of their involvement remains a source of debate. Here we determine the extent to which their relative involvement in attentional control depends upon the levels of processing at which the conflict occurs (e.g., response, non-response). Using a combination of blocked and rapid presentation event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques, we compared neural activity during incongruent Stroop trial types that produce conflict at different levels of processing. Our data suggest that the involvement of anterior cingulate and right prefrontal cortex in attentional control is primarily limited to situations of response conflict, while the involvement of left prefrontal cortex extends to the occurrence of conflict at non-response levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)467-473
Number of pages7
JournalCognitive Brain Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 12 2001



  • Anterior cingulate
  • Attentional control
  • Conflict
  • Prefrontal
  • Stroop

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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