The relationship between total water intake and cognitive control among prepubertal children

N. A. Khan, L. B. Raine, E. S. Drollette, M. R. Scudder, N. J. Cohen, A. F. Kramer, C. H. Hillman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Cognitive control (also known as executive function) encompasses mental processes that underlie goal-directed behavior, and it enables us to adjust our behavior according to changing environmental demands. Previous research among children has demonstrated that aerobic fitness and obesity have contrasting and selective effects on cognitive control. However, the relationship between water intake and childhood cognitive control remains inadequately studied. This study investigated the relationship between total water intake and cognitive control among prepubertal children (8-9-year olds). Methods: Children between 8 and 9 years of age (n = 63) performed a modified flanker task to assess cognitive control related to inhibition (ability to resist distractions and maintain focus). Diet was measured using 3-day food records. Total water was defined as water consumed from drinking water, beverages, and food. Results: A comparison of task performance across the median intake of total water revealed that children above the median exhibited shorter reaction times across multiple conditions of the flanker task, requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. Further, after adjustment of age, IQ, socioeconomic status, weight status, and aerobic fitness level, the proportion of intake comprised of water (%TW) was negatively correlated with reaction time interference, that is, the ability to maintain task performance when task conditions demanded greater inhibition. Conclusions: These results indicate an association between water intake and cognitive control using a task that modulates inhibition. Specifically, higher water intake correlated with greater ability to maintain task performance when inhibitory demands are increased. Future work is needed to determine the mechanism by which water influences cognitive control among children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-41
Number of pages4
JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume66
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 23 2015

Fingerprint

Drinking
Aptitude
Task Performance and Analysis
Reaction Time
Water
Mental Processes
Social Adjustment
Food and Beverages
Executive Function
Social Class
Drinking Water
Obesity
Diet
Weights and Measures
Food
Research
Inhibition (Psychology)

Keywords

  • Attention
  • Children
  • Cognition
  • Reaction time
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

The relationship between total water intake and cognitive control among prepubertal children. / Khan, N. A.; Raine, L. B.; Drollette, E. S.; Scudder, M. R.; Cohen, N. J.; Kramer, A. F.; Hillman, C. H.

In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 66, 23.06.2015, p. 38-41.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Khan, N. A. ; Raine, L. B. ; Drollette, E. S. ; Scudder, M. R. ; Cohen, N. J. ; Kramer, A. F. ; Hillman, C. H. / The relationship between total water intake and cognitive control among prepubertal children. In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2015 ; Vol. 66. pp. 38-41.
@article{5f5ab97dcbde4188a8855248f2348708,
title = "The relationship between total water intake and cognitive control among prepubertal children",
abstract = "Background: Cognitive control (also known as executive function) encompasses mental processes that underlie goal-directed behavior, and it enables us to adjust our behavior according to changing environmental demands. Previous research among children has demonstrated that aerobic fitness and obesity have contrasting and selective effects on cognitive control. However, the relationship between water intake and childhood cognitive control remains inadequately studied. This study investigated the relationship between total water intake and cognitive control among prepubertal children (8-9-year olds). Methods: Children between 8 and 9 years of age (n = 63) performed a modified flanker task to assess cognitive control related to inhibition (ability to resist distractions and maintain focus). Diet was measured using 3-day food records. Total water was defined as water consumed from drinking water, beverages, and food. Results: A comparison of task performance across the median intake of total water revealed that children above the median exhibited shorter reaction times across multiple conditions of the flanker task, requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. Further, after adjustment of age, IQ, socioeconomic status, weight status, and aerobic fitness level, the proportion of intake comprised of water ({\%}TW) was negatively correlated with reaction time interference, that is, the ability to maintain task performance when task conditions demanded greater inhibition. Conclusions: These results indicate an association between water intake and cognitive control using a task that modulates inhibition. Specifically, higher water intake correlated with greater ability to maintain task performance when inhibitory demands are increased. Future work is needed to determine the mechanism by which water influences cognitive control among children.",
keywords = "Attention, Children, Cognition, Reaction time, Water",
author = "Khan, {N. A.} and Raine, {L. B.} and Drollette, {E. S.} and Scudder, {M. R.} and Cohen, {N. J.} and Kramer, {A. F.} and Hillman, {C. H.}",
year = "2015",
month = "6",
day = "23",
doi = "10.1159/000381245",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "66",
pages = "38--41",
journal = "Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism",
issn = "0250-6807",
publisher = "S. Karger AG",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The relationship between total water intake and cognitive control among prepubertal children

AU - Khan, N. A.

AU - Raine, L. B.

AU - Drollette, E. S.

AU - Scudder, M. R.

AU - Cohen, N. J.

AU - Kramer, A. F.

AU - Hillman, C. H.

PY - 2015/6/23

Y1 - 2015/6/23

N2 - Background: Cognitive control (also known as executive function) encompasses mental processes that underlie goal-directed behavior, and it enables us to adjust our behavior according to changing environmental demands. Previous research among children has demonstrated that aerobic fitness and obesity have contrasting and selective effects on cognitive control. However, the relationship between water intake and childhood cognitive control remains inadequately studied. This study investigated the relationship between total water intake and cognitive control among prepubertal children (8-9-year olds). Methods: Children between 8 and 9 years of age (n = 63) performed a modified flanker task to assess cognitive control related to inhibition (ability to resist distractions and maintain focus). Diet was measured using 3-day food records. Total water was defined as water consumed from drinking water, beverages, and food. Results: A comparison of task performance across the median intake of total water revealed that children above the median exhibited shorter reaction times across multiple conditions of the flanker task, requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. Further, after adjustment of age, IQ, socioeconomic status, weight status, and aerobic fitness level, the proportion of intake comprised of water (%TW) was negatively correlated with reaction time interference, that is, the ability to maintain task performance when task conditions demanded greater inhibition. Conclusions: These results indicate an association between water intake and cognitive control using a task that modulates inhibition. Specifically, higher water intake correlated with greater ability to maintain task performance when inhibitory demands are increased. Future work is needed to determine the mechanism by which water influences cognitive control among children.

AB - Background: Cognitive control (also known as executive function) encompasses mental processes that underlie goal-directed behavior, and it enables us to adjust our behavior according to changing environmental demands. Previous research among children has demonstrated that aerobic fitness and obesity have contrasting and selective effects on cognitive control. However, the relationship between water intake and childhood cognitive control remains inadequately studied. This study investigated the relationship between total water intake and cognitive control among prepubertal children (8-9-year olds). Methods: Children between 8 and 9 years of age (n = 63) performed a modified flanker task to assess cognitive control related to inhibition (ability to resist distractions and maintain focus). Diet was measured using 3-day food records. Total water was defined as water consumed from drinking water, beverages, and food. Results: A comparison of task performance across the median intake of total water revealed that children above the median exhibited shorter reaction times across multiple conditions of the flanker task, requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. Further, after adjustment of age, IQ, socioeconomic status, weight status, and aerobic fitness level, the proportion of intake comprised of water (%TW) was negatively correlated with reaction time interference, that is, the ability to maintain task performance when task conditions demanded greater inhibition. Conclusions: These results indicate an association between water intake and cognitive control using a task that modulates inhibition. Specifically, higher water intake correlated with greater ability to maintain task performance when inhibitory demands are increased. Future work is needed to determine the mechanism by which water influences cognitive control among children.

KW - Attention

KW - Children

KW - Cognition

KW - Reaction time

KW - Water

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84932187357&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84932187357&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1159/000381245

DO - 10.1159/000381245

M3 - Article

C2 - 26088046

AN - SCOPUS:84932187357

VL - 66

SP - 38

EP - 41

JO - Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism

JF - Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism

SN - 0250-6807

ER -