The Relationship Between Grey Matter Volume and Clinical and Functional Outcomes in People at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

Stefania Tognin, Anja Richter, Matthew J. Kempton, Gemma Modinos, Mathilde Antoniades, Matilda Azis, Paul Allen, Matthijs G. Bossong, Jesus Perez, Christos Pantelis, Barnaby Nelson, Paul Amminger, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Marie Odile Krebs, Birte Glenthøj, Stephan Ruhrmann, Gabriele Sachs, Bart P.F. Rutten, Lieuwe De HaanMark Van Der Gaag, Philip Mcguire, Lucia R. Valmaggia, Maria Calem, Mathilde Antoniades, Sara Pisani, Gemma Modinos, Lieuwe De Haan, Mark Van Der Gaag, Eva Velthorst, Tamar C. Kraan, Daniella S. Van Dam, Nadine Burger, Barnaby Nelson, Patrick Mcgorry, Athena Politis, Joanne Goodall, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Stefan Borgwardt, Erich Studerus, Rodrigo Bressan, Ary Gadelha, Elisa Brietzke, Graccielle Asevedo, Elson Asevedo, Andre Zugman, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Tecelli Domínguez-Martínez, Anna Racciopi, Thomas R. Kwapil, Manel Monsonet, Lídia Hinojosa, Mathilde Kazes, Claire Daban, Julie Bourgin, Olivier Gay, Celia Mam-Lam-Fook, Marie Odile Krebs, Dorte Nordholm, Lasse Randers, Kristine Krakauer, Louise Glenthøj, Birte Glenthøj, Merete Nordentoft, Stephan Ruhrmann, Dominika Gebhard, Julia Arnhold, Joachim Klosterkötter, Gabriele Sachs, Iris Lasser, Bernadette Winklbaur, Harald Aschauer, Philippe A. Delespaul, Bart P. Rutten, Jim Van Os, Philip Mcguire

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To examine the association between baseline alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) and clinical and functional outcomes in people at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Methods: 265 CHR individuals and 92 healthy controls were recruited as part of a prospective multi-center study. After a baseline assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), participants were followed for at least two years to determine clinical and functional outcomes, including transition to psychosis (according to the Comprehensive Assessment of an At Risk Mental State, CAARMS), level of functioning (according to the Global Assessment of Functioning), and symptomatic remission (according to the CAARMS). GMV was measured in selected cortical and subcortical regions of interest (ROI) based on previous studies (ie orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, gyrus rectus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, striatum, and hippocampus). Using voxel-based morphometry, we analysed the relationship between GMV and clinical and functional outcomes. Results: Within the CHR sample, a poor functional outcome (GAF < 65) was associated with relatively lower GMV in the right striatum at baseline (P <. 047 after Family Wise Error correction). There were no significant associations between baseline GMV and either subsequent remission or transition to psychosis. Conclusions: In CHR individuals, lower striatal GMV was associated with a poor level of overall functioning at follow-up. This finding was not related to effects of antipsychotic or antidepressant medication. The failure to replicate previous associations between GMV and later psychosis onset, despite studying a relatively large sample, is consistent with the findings of recent large-scale multi-center studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbersgac040
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin Open
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • clinical high risk for psychosis
  • clinical outcomes
  • functioning
  • grey matter volume
  • remission
  • structural magnetic resonance imaging
  • transition to psychosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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