The reactance restoration scale (RRS): A measure of direct and indirect restoration

Brian L. Quick, Michael T. Stephenson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) emerged as an important theoretical framework more than four decades ago, only recently has PRT been applied to the health context. Despite numerous studies testing the principles put forth by PRT, presently no scale exists to measure reactance restoration. The present investigation sets out to address this gap by developing and evaluating the Reactance Restoration Scale (RRS). We performed a confirmatory factor analysis to test the psychometric properties of the 12-item scale. Additionally, we locate the RRS in a nomological network containing both state and trait reactance to examine its construct validity. The scale emanates from Brehm's conceptualization of direct and indirect restoration. Results indicate three unique subscales: boomerang, related boomerang, and vicarious boomerang. Furthermore, the construct validity of the RRS was established given its positive association with state and trait reactance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-138
Number of pages8
JournalCommunication Research Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Health Communication
  • Persuasion
  • Psychological Reactance
  • Scale Development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication


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