The Multiple Sclerosis Self-Management Scale-2: Evaluation of an Updated Scale

Malachy L. Bishop, Michael P. Frain, Jian Li, Chung-Yi Chiu, Bradley Mcdaniels, Byung-Jin Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



The Multiple Sclerosis Self-Management Scale (MSSM) was developed to provide a multidimensional and psychometrically sound assessment of self-management knowledge and behavior among adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The scale was recently updated with new items to address advances in MS treatment and self-management interventions. We present results of an evaluation of these updates and the psychometric adequacy of the updated MSSM.


Participants were 2,393 adults with MS recruited through the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry and selected chapters of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Participants completed the MSSM and several additional instruments of function and quality of life. A seven-factor structure of the revised MSSM (MSSM-2) was identified using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and the stability of the factor structure was evaluated using a cross-validation approach.


Factor analysis of the updated MSSM-2 revealed seven factors. Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and correlation of the MSSM with constructs related to self-management.


The MSSM-2 provides a brief, psychometrically sound multidimensional assessment of MS self-management for research and clinical applications.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)210-226
JournalJournal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2019


  • multiple sclerosis
  • cross-validation
  • confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)
  • exploratory factor analysis (EFA)
  • psychometric methods
  • self-management
  • chronic illness
  • measurement development


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