The Lipidome of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Lactating Holstein Cows

Qianming Jiang, Juan J. Loor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The lipidome is a key determinant of structural and functional characteristics of tissues, contributing to optimal gut function and efficiency of nutrient use in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Our objective was to study lipidomic profiles in different sections of the GIT in lactating dairy cows and to link them with biological functions. We studied the lipid species in ruminal papillae and epithelium from duodenum, jejunum, and ileum harvested after slaughter from five lactating Holstein cows. Extracted lipids were identified by LC/MS/MS and analyzed via Lipidsearch, Metaboanalyst 5.0, and lipid ontology (LION). Of 1259 lipid species identified across the GIT, 387, 565, 193, and 86 were neutral lipids, phospholipids, sphingolipids, and derivatized lipids, respectively. Among the 1223 lipid species common to the GIT, a PLS-DA analysis revealed similar profiles for jejunum and ileum and discriminated them from rumen and duodenum. The content of 12 out of 28 lipid classes differed (p < 0.05) among GIT sections. The average fatty acid chain length in lipid species spanned from 9 to 37 carbons, and the average degree of unsaturation ranged from 0 to 6. The term ‘membrane component’ from LION analysis differed markedly between the rumen and the small intestine. Future studies will help better understand what factors (function or cellular component) in a given section of the GIT are related to the different lipid species. This is the first description of the lipidome profiles across sections of the GIT in lactating dairy cows. The unique lipidome profiles uncovered distinct structural and functional properties across the bovine GIT, which may impact the efficiency of nutrient use.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)76-91
Number of pages16
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 20 2023


  • lipid profiles
  • nutrition
  • rumen
  • small intestine
  • bovine


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