The interactions between bioactive-rich food components within a complex human diet for the inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis are largely unknown and difficult to quantify in humans. Tomato and soy products have each shown anti-prostate cancer (PCa) activity in laboratory studies. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of dietary tomato and soy germ, alone and in combination, for the inhibition of PCa in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. At 4 weeks of age, male C57BL/6 x FVB TRAMP mice (n = 119) were randomized to consume: AIN-93G control, 10% whole tomato powder (TP), 2% soy germ powder (SG), or 10% tomato powder with 2% soy germ powder (TP+SG) for 14 weeks. One hundred percent of mice fed the control diet had PCa, whereas PCa incidence was significantly lower in mice consuming TP (61%, P < 0.001), SG (66%, P < 0.001), and TP+SG (45%, P < 0.001). Although the protection offered by the combination of TP and SG was not synergistic, it was the most effective intervention. TP, SG, and TP+SG increased apoptotic index (AI) and modestly reduced the proliferative index (PI) in the prostate epithelium of TRAMP mice exhibiting primarily prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. The dramatic reduction in the PI/AI ratio by the dietary interventions suggests that the control mice experience a stronger stimulus for malignant progression in the prostate microenvironment. Maximally effective and safe strategies for PCa prevention may result from optimizing combinations of nutrients and bioactives through an orchestration of dietary patterns.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research