Abstract

The elucidation of the genomes of a large number of mammalian species has produced a huge amount of data on which to base physiological studies. These endeavours have also produced surprises, not least of which has been the revelation that the number of protein coding genes needed to make a mammal is only 22333 (give or take). However, this small number belies an unanticipated complexity that has only recently been revealed as a result of genomic studies. This complexity is evident at a number of levels: (i) cis-regulatory sequences; (ii) noncoding and antisense mRNAs, most of which have no known function; (iii) alternative splicing that results in the generation of multiple, subtly different mature mRNAs from the precursor transcript encoded by a single gene; and (iv) post-translational processing and modification. In this review, we examine the steps being taken to decipher genome complexity in the context of gene expression, regulation and function in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system (HNS). Five unique stories explain: (i) the use of transcriptomics to identify genes involved in the response to physiological (dehydration) and pathological (hypertension) cues; (ii) the use of mass spectrometry for single-cell level identification of biological active peptides in the HNS, and to measure in vitro release; (iii) the use of transgenic lines that express fusion transgenes enabling (by cross-breeding) the generation of double transgenic lines that can be used to study vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) neurones in the HNS, as well as their neuroanatomy, electrophysiology and activation upon exposure to any given stimulus; (iv) the use of viral vectors to demonstrate that somato-dendritically released AVP plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis by binding to V1a receptors on local somata and dendrites; and (v) the use of virally-mediated optogenetics to dissect the role of OXT and AVP in the modulation of a wide variety of behaviours.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)539-553
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Neuroendocrinology
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2012

Fingerprint

Oxytocin
Optogenetics
Genome
Neuroanatomy
Electrophysiology
RNA Precursors
Alternative Splicing
Gene Expression Regulation
Carisoprodol
Post Translational Protein Processing
Dendrites
Vasopressins
Transgenes
Dehydration
Genes
Breeding
Cues
Mammals
Mass Spectrometry
Homeostasis

Keywords

  • Genome
  • Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system
  • Neuropeptidome
  • Oxytocin
  • Proteome
  • Transcriptome
  • Transgenic rats
  • Vasopressin
  • Viral vectors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

The Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal System : From Genome to Physiology. / Murphy, D.; Konopacka, A.; Hindmarch, C.; Paton, J. F.R.; Sweedler, J. V.; Gillette, M. U.; Ueta, Y.; Grinevich, V.; Lozic, M.; Japundzic-Zigon, N.

In: Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 24, No. 4, 01.04.2012, p. 539-553.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Murphy, D, Konopacka, A, Hindmarch, C, Paton, JFR, Sweedler, JV, Gillette, MU, Ueta, Y, Grinevich, V, Lozic, M & Japundzic-Zigon, N 2012, 'The Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal System: From Genome to Physiology', Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 539-553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02241.x
Murphy, D. ; Konopacka, A. ; Hindmarch, C. ; Paton, J. F.R. ; Sweedler, J. V. ; Gillette, M. U. ; Ueta, Y. ; Grinevich, V. ; Lozic, M. ; Japundzic-Zigon, N. / The Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal System : From Genome to Physiology. In: Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 2012 ; Vol. 24, No. 4. pp. 539-553.
@article{710f7b54e1ca4bb69a1a69114f962dfa,
title = "The Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal System: From Genome to Physiology",
abstract = "The elucidation of the genomes of a large number of mammalian species has produced a huge amount of data on which to base physiological studies. These endeavours have also produced surprises, not least of which has been the revelation that the number of protein coding genes needed to make a mammal is only 22333 (give or take). However, this small number belies an unanticipated complexity that has only recently been revealed as a result of genomic studies. This complexity is evident at a number of levels: (i) cis-regulatory sequences; (ii) noncoding and antisense mRNAs, most of which have no known function; (iii) alternative splicing that results in the generation of multiple, subtly different mature mRNAs from the precursor transcript encoded by a single gene; and (iv) post-translational processing and modification. In this review, we examine the steps being taken to decipher genome complexity in the context of gene expression, regulation and function in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system (HNS). Five unique stories explain: (i) the use of transcriptomics to identify genes involved in the response to physiological (dehydration) and pathological (hypertension) cues; (ii) the use of mass spectrometry for single-cell level identification of biological active peptides in the HNS, and to measure in vitro release; (iii) the use of transgenic lines that express fusion transgenes enabling (by cross-breeding) the generation of double transgenic lines that can be used to study vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) neurones in the HNS, as well as their neuroanatomy, electrophysiology and activation upon exposure to any given stimulus; (iv) the use of viral vectors to demonstrate that somato-dendritically released AVP plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis by binding to V1a receptors on local somata and dendrites; and (v) the use of virally-mediated optogenetics to dissect the role of OXT and AVP in the modulation of a wide variety of behaviours.",
keywords = "Genome, Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system, Neuropeptidome, Oxytocin, Proteome, Transcriptome, Transgenic rats, Vasopressin, Viral vectors",
author = "D. Murphy and A. Konopacka and C. Hindmarch and Paton, {J. F.R.} and Sweedler, {J. V.} and Gillette, {M. U.} and Y. Ueta and V. Grinevich and M. Lozic and N. Japundzic-Zigon",
year = "2012",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02241.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "24",
pages = "539--553",
journal = "Journal of Neuroendocrinology",
issn = "0953-8194",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal System

T2 - From Genome to Physiology

AU - Murphy, D.

AU - Konopacka, A.

AU - Hindmarch, C.

AU - Paton, J. F.R.

AU - Sweedler, J. V.

AU - Gillette, M. U.

AU - Ueta, Y.

AU - Grinevich, V.

AU - Lozic, M.

AU - Japundzic-Zigon, N.

PY - 2012/4/1

Y1 - 2012/4/1

N2 - The elucidation of the genomes of a large number of mammalian species has produced a huge amount of data on which to base physiological studies. These endeavours have also produced surprises, not least of which has been the revelation that the number of protein coding genes needed to make a mammal is only 22333 (give or take). However, this small number belies an unanticipated complexity that has only recently been revealed as a result of genomic studies. This complexity is evident at a number of levels: (i) cis-regulatory sequences; (ii) noncoding and antisense mRNAs, most of which have no known function; (iii) alternative splicing that results in the generation of multiple, subtly different mature mRNAs from the precursor transcript encoded by a single gene; and (iv) post-translational processing and modification. In this review, we examine the steps being taken to decipher genome complexity in the context of gene expression, regulation and function in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system (HNS). Five unique stories explain: (i) the use of transcriptomics to identify genes involved in the response to physiological (dehydration) and pathological (hypertension) cues; (ii) the use of mass spectrometry for single-cell level identification of biological active peptides in the HNS, and to measure in vitro release; (iii) the use of transgenic lines that express fusion transgenes enabling (by cross-breeding) the generation of double transgenic lines that can be used to study vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) neurones in the HNS, as well as their neuroanatomy, electrophysiology and activation upon exposure to any given stimulus; (iv) the use of viral vectors to demonstrate that somato-dendritically released AVP plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis by binding to V1a receptors on local somata and dendrites; and (v) the use of virally-mediated optogenetics to dissect the role of OXT and AVP in the modulation of a wide variety of behaviours.

AB - The elucidation of the genomes of a large number of mammalian species has produced a huge amount of data on which to base physiological studies. These endeavours have also produced surprises, not least of which has been the revelation that the number of protein coding genes needed to make a mammal is only 22333 (give or take). However, this small number belies an unanticipated complexity that has only recently been revealed as a result of genomic studies. This complexity is evident at a number of levels: (i) cis-regulatory sequences; (ii) noncoding and antisense mRNAs, most of which have no known function; (iii) alternative splicing that results in the generation of multiple, subtly different mature mRNAs from the precursor transcript encoded by a single gene; and (iv) post-translational processing and modification. In this review, we examine the steps being taken to decipher genome complexity in the context of gene expression, regulation and function in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system (HNS). Five unique stories explain: (i) the use of transcriptomics to identify genes involved in the response to physiological (dehydration) and pathological (hypertension) cues; (ii) the use of mass spectrometry for single-cell level identification of biological active peptides in the HNS, and to measure in vitro release; (iii) the use of transgenic lines that express fusion transgenes enabling (by cross-breeding) the generation of double transgenic lines that can be used to study vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) neurones in the HNS, as well as their neuroanatomy, electrophysiology and activation upon exposure to any given stimulus; (iv) the use of viral vectors to demonstrate that somato-dendritically released AVP plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis by binding to V1a receptors on local somata and dendrites; and (v) the use of virally-mediated optogenetics to dissect the role of OXT and AVP in the modulation of a wide variety of behaviours.

KW - Genome

KW - Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system

KW - Neuropeptidome

KW - Oxytocin

KW - Proteome

KW - Transcriptome

KW - Transgenic rats

KW - Vasopressin

KW - Viral vectors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84858832918&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84858832918&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02241.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02241.x

M3 - Review article

C2 - 22448850

AN - SCOPUS:84858832918

VL - 24

SP - 539

EP - 553

JO - Journal of Neuroendocrinology

JF - Journal of Neuroendocrinology

SN - 0953-8194

IS - 4

ER -