The far-infrared/radio correlation as probed by Herschel

R. J. Ivison, B. Magnelli, E. Ibar, P. Andreani, D. Elbaz, B. Altieri, A. Amblard, V. Arumugam, R. Auld, H. Aussel, T. Babbedge, S. Berta, A. Blain, J. Bock, A. Bongiovanni, A. Boselli, V. Buat, D. Burgarella, N. Castro-Rodríguez, A. CavaJ. Cepa, P. Chanial, A. Cimatti, M. Cirasuolo, D. L. Clements, A. Conley, L. Conversi, A. Cooray, E. Daddi, H. Dominguez, C. D. Dowell, E. Dwek, S. Eales, D. Farrah, N. FörsterSchreiber, M. Fox, A. Franceschini, W. Gear, R. Genzel, J. Glenn, M. Griffin, C. Gruppioni, M. Halpern, E. Hatziminaoglou, K. Isaak, G. Lagache, L. Levenson, N. Lu, D. Lutz, S. Madden, B. Maffei, G. Magdis, G. Mainetti, R. Maiolino, L. Marchetti, G. E. Morrison, A. M.J. Mortier, H. T. Nguyen, R. Nordon, B. O'Halloran, S. J. Oliver, A. Omont, F. N. Owen, M. J. Page, P. Panuzzo, A. Papageorgiou, C. P. Pearson, I. Pérez-Fournon, A. M.Pérez García, A. Poglitsch, M. Pohlen, P. Popesso, F. Pozzi, J. I. Rawlings, G. Raymond, D. Rigopoulou, L. Riguccini, D. Rizzo, G. Rodighiero, I. G. Roseboom, M. Rowan-Robinson, A. Saintonge, M. SanchezPorta, P. Santini, B. Schulz, D. Scott, N. Seymour, L. Shao, D. L. Shupe, A. J. Smith, J. A. Stevens, E. Sturm, M. Symeonidis, L. Tacconi, M. Trichas, K. E. Tugwell, M. Vaccari, I. Valtchanov, J. Vieira, L. Vigroux, L. Wang, R. Ward, G. Wright, C. K. Xu, M. Zemcov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We set out to determine the ratio, qIR, of rest-frame 8-1000-μm flux, SIR, to monochromatic radio flux, S 1.4 GHz, for galaxies selected at far-infrared (IR) and radio wavelengths, to search for signs that the ratio evolves with redshift, luminosity or dust temperature, Td, and to identify any far-IR-bright outliers - useful laboratories for exploring why the far-IR/radio correlation (FIRRC) is generally so tight when the prevailing theory suggests variations are almost inevitable. We use flux-limited 250-μm and 1.4-GHz samples, obtained using Herschel and the Very Large Array (VLA) in GOODS-North (-N). We determine bolometric IR output using ten bands spanning λobs = 24-1250 μm, exploiting data from PACS and SPIRE (PEP; HerMES), as well as Spitzer, SCUBA, AzTEC and MAMBO. We also explore the properties of an L IR-matched sample, designed to reveal evolution of qIR with redshift, spanning log LIR = 11-12 L and z = 0-2, by stacking into the radio and far-IR images. For 1.4-GHz-selected galaxies in GOODS-N, we see tentative evidence of a break in the flux ratio, q IR, at L1.4 GHz ∼ 1022.7 W Hz-1, where active galactic nuclei (AGN) are starting to dominate the radio power density, and of weaker correlations with redshift and Td. From our 250-μm-selected sample we identify a small number of far-IR-bright outliers, and see trends of qIR with L1.4 GHz, LIR, Td and redshift, noting that some of these are inter-related. For our LIR-matched sample, there is no evidence that qIR changes significantly as we move back into the epoch of galaxy formation: we find qIR (1+z)γ, where γ = -0.04±0.03 at z = 0-2; however, discounting the least reliable data at z < 0.5 we find γ = -0.26±0.07, modest evolution which may be related to the radio background seen by ARCADE 2, perhaps driven by <10-μJy radio activity amongst ordinary star-forming galaxies at z>1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL31
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: starburst
  • infrared: galaxies
  • radio continuum: galaxies
  • submillimeter: galaxies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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