The evolutionary origin and domestication history of goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Duo Chen, Qing Zhang, Weiqi Tang, Zhen Huang, Gang Wang, Yongjun Wang, Jiaxian Shi, Huimin Xu, Lianyu Lin, Zhen Li, Wenchao Chi, Likun Huang, Jing Xia, Xingtan Zhang, Lin Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Panpan Ma, Juan Tang, Gang Zhou, Min LiuFuyan Liu, Xiuting Hua, Baiyu Wang, Qiaochu Shen, Qing Jiang, Jingxian Lin, Xuequn Chen, Hongbo Wang, Meijie Dou, Lei Liu, Haoran Pan, Yiying Qi, Bin Wu, Jingping Fang, Yitao Zhou, Wan Cen, Wenjin He, Qiujin Zhang, Ting Xue, Gang Lin, Wenchun Zhang, Zhongjian Liu, Liming Qu, Aiming Wang, Qichang Ye, Jianming Chen, Yanding Zhang, Ray Ming, Marc Van Montagu, Haibao Tang, Yves Van de Peer, Youqiang Chen, Jisen Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Goldfish have been subjected to over 1,000 y of intensive domestication and selective breeding. In this report, we describe a high-quality goldfish genome (2n = 100), anchoring 95.75% of contigs into 50 pseudochromosomes. Comparative genomics enabled us to disentangle the two subgenomes that resulted from an ancient hybridization event. Resequencing 185 representative goldfish variants and 16 wild crucian carp revealed the origin of goldfish and identified genomic regions that have been shaped by selective sweeps linked to its domestication. Our comprehensive collection of goldfish varieties enabled us to associate genetic variations with a number of well-known anatomical features, including features that distinguish traditional goldfish clades. Additionally, we identified a tyrosine-protein kinase receptor as a candidate causal gene for the first well-known case of Mendelian inheritance in goldfish-the transparent mutant. The goldfish genome and diversity data offer unique resources to make goldfish a promising model for functional genomics, as well as domestication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29775-29785
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number47
StatePublished - Nov 24 2020


  • Carassius auratus
  • domestication
  • Genome evolution
  • Goldfish
  • GWAS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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