The effects of the phthalate DiNP on reproduction

Shuhong Yang, Rachel Braz Arcanjo, Romana A. Nowak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a high molecular weight, general purpose, plasticizer used primarily in the manufacture of polymers and consumer products. It can be metabolized rapidly and does not bioaccumulate. The primary metabolite of DiNP is monoisononyl-phthalate (MiNP) and the secondary metabolites include three oxidative derivatives of DiNP, which have been identified mainly in urine: Mono-oxoisononyl phthalate (MOINP or oxo-MiNP), mono-carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCIOP, MCOP or cx-MiNP), and mono-hydroxyisononyl phthalate (MHINP or OHMiNP). The secondary metabolites are very sensitive biomarkers of DiNP exposure while primary metabolites are not. As the usage of DiNP worldwide increases, studies evaluating its potential reproductive toxicity are becoming more prevalent in the literature. In studies on female animals, the researchers found that the exposure to DiNP appears to induce negative effects on ovarian function and fertility in animal models. Whether or not DiNP has direct effects on the uterus is still controversial, and the effects on human reproduction require much more research. Studies on males indicate that DiNP exposure has disruptive effects on male reproduction and fertility. Occupational studies also indicate that the exposure to DiNP might induce negative effects on male reproduction, but larger cohort studies are needed to confirm this. This review presents an overview of the literature regarding the reproductive effects of exposure to DiNP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)305-316
Number of pages12
JournalBiology of reproduction
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2021


  • DiNP
  • Metabolite
  • Ovary
  • Phthalate
  • Reproductive toxicity
  • Testis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'The effects of the phthalate DiNP on reproduction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this