The effects of roasting temperature applied to whole soybeans on site of digestion by steers: II. Protein and amino acid digestion.

C. G. Aldrich, N. R. Merchen, D. R. Nelson, J. A. Barmore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A 4 x 5 Youden square design was used to determine the effect of roasting temperature of whole soybeans on escape of CP from the rumen and disappearance of N from the small intestine in steers. Four steers (average BW 373 kg +/- 30.7) cannulated at the rumen, duodenum, and ileum were fed each of five diets (1.8% of BW) over five periods. The basal diet contained corn silage (50% of diet DM), alfalfa hay (24%), corn-urea premix (6%), corn starch grits (16.6%), and soybean oil (3.4%). Soybeans (16% of diet DM), either raw or heated to an exit temperature of 141, 149, or 157 degrees C in a commercial roaster, replaced the soybean oil and most of the corn starch grits in the soybean-containing diets. Ruminal ammonia N was lower (P < .05) for the basal diet than for the soybean-containing diets. Roasting temperature of whole soybeans had no significant impact on ruminal ammonia N. Total N reaching the duodenum was greater (P < .05) for steers fed the soybean diets than for steers fed the basal diet. Non-bacterial N (dietary N) at the duodenum was increased (P < .05) by feeding soybeans. Soybean N reaching the duodenum decreased with increased roasting temperature. Increased roasting temperature of whole soybeans seemed to make the soybeans more brittle, subsequently increasing degradation of CP in the rumen. However, disappearance of soybean N in the small intestine, as a proportion of the soybean N entering the small intestine, increased with increased roasting temperature. Apparent total tract N digestibility was increased (P < .05) by feeding soybeans. Flow to the duodenum and small intestinal digestibility of total, essential, and nonessential amino acids increased (P < .05) when soybeans were fed and when roasted vs raw soybeans were fed. Under normal roasting conditions, it seemed that little potential for heat damage to the soybean protein existed. Instead, undesirable effects of heating on handling characteristics of the soybeans were reached before the point at which loss of nutritive value occurred. Feeding steers diets containing roasted whole soybeans increased the N and amino acids available to steers over steers fed diets containing raw soybeans due to increased ruminal soybean nitrogen escape and increased small intestinal digestibility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2131-2140
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume73
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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