The effects of dry extrusion temperature of whole soybeans on digestion of protein and amino acids by steers

F. Orias, C. G. Aldrich, J. C. Elizalde, L. L. Bauer, N. R. Merchen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Five Holstein steers (450 kg) with cannulas in the rumen, proximal duodenum, and terminal ileum were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design to study the effects of extrusion temperature on site of digestion of nitrogenous compounds in whole soybeans. The basal diet contained 50% corn silage, 24% alfalfa hay, 16.6% corn starch, 4.05% ground corn, 1% urea, and 3.4% soybean oil. Raw soybeans or soybeans extruded at 116, 138, or 160°C (diets 116, 138, and 160, respectively) replaced the soybean oil and most of the corn starch in the test diets. Total N (g/d) reaching the duodenum was 232, 293, 285, 308, and 299 for the basal, raw, 116, 138, and 160 diets, respectively. No differences were observed between the raw and extruded soybeans (P = 0.81), or for the linear or quadratic effects of extrusion temperature (P = 0.56 and P = 0.45, respectively). Non-bacterial N (g/d) reaching the duodenum was 63.1, 104.6, 106.7, 101.9, and 113.9 for the same diets, respectively, and was not influenced by extrusion or extrusion temperature. Nitrogen disappearance from the small intestine (g/d) was 150 for the basal diet, 194 for the raw soybean diet, and 187, 221, and 213 for the 116, 138, and 160°C extruded diets, respectively; no differences were observed between the raw and the extruded soybeans, or for diets containing soybeans extruded at different temperatures. Nitrogen disappearance (% of N entering) from the small intestine was lower (P < 0.05) for steers fed the basal diet than for steers fed the soybean-supplemented diets (64.1 vs 68.5%). No differences (P > 0.10) due to extrusion temperature were detected for flows of individual, essential AA, nonessential AA, and total AA at the duodenum. As extrusion temperatures increased, there were linear increases (P < 0.10) in disappearance (g/d) of all individual AA from the small intestine except for methionine and glycine. Essential, nonessential, and total AA disappearance from the small intestine were increased linearly (P < 0.10) with increasing extrusion temperature. Extrusion of soybeans can protect soy protein against extensive ruminal degradation without compromising intestinal digestibility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2493-2501
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Volume80
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2002

Keywords

  • Amino Acids
  • Digestion
  • Extrusion
  • Soybeans
  • Steers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology

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