The effects of doxapram hydrochloride (dopram-V) on laryngeal function in healthy dogs

Carrie Jean Miller, Brendan C. McKiernan, Jennifer Pace, Martin J. Fettman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Laryngeal dysfunction is assessed most accurately by direct visualization of the larynx under a light plane of anesthesia. If the plane of anesthesia used is too deep, laryngeal structures may appear paralyzed and remain in a paramedian position. Doxapram hydrochloride is a known respiratory stimulant. We hypothesized that doxapram would significantly increase intrinsic laryngeal motion in healthy anesthetized dogs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of doxapram on the area of rima glottidis (RG) in healthy dogs. Thirty healthy dogs were studied. Dogs were premedicated with hutorphanol tartrate (0.22 mg/kg IV), acepromazine maleate (0.05 mg/kg SC). and glycopyrrolate (0.005 mg/kg SC), followed by induction with propofol (4 mg/kg IV). Intrinsic laryngeal motion observed in each dog was recorded on videotape after induction. Doxapram then was administered (2.2 mg/kg IV) and respirations again were recorded Representative breaths for each dog were photographed during 4 phases of respiration (inspiration at rest, inspiration with doxapram. expiration at rest, and expiration with doxapram) The area of the RG then was calculated by using a computer-assisted analysis program. Results of each category were compared by using a 1-way analysis of variance; P ≤ .05 was considered significant Doxapram visibly increased respiratory effort, and was associated with increased intrinsic laryngeal motion. Compared to the resting state, the area of the RG was significantly increased after doxapram administration during both inspiration and expiration. We propose the routine use of doxapram during laryngoscopy to increase intrinsic laryngeal motion and aid in the diagnosis of laryngeal dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)524-528
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of veterinary internal medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2002


  • Laryngeal evaluation
  • Laryngeal paralysis, Laryngoscopy
  • Respiratory stimulants
  • Rima glottidis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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