Does ability cause achievement, or vice versa? This longitudinal panel study investigates the relationship between ability and achievement in a non-Western culture, among elementary schoolchildren in Taiwan. Taiwan is an interesting case because SES differences, which have proved problematic for studies in the United States, are relatively unconfounded with educational experience. Scores on Raven's Progressive Matrices and mathematics grades in school were collected on a cohort of 608 students at both first and fourth grade. Path modeling revealed a relatively large effect of mathematics achievement in first grade on Raven's Matrices scores in fourth grade, but only a very small effect of Raven's Matrices scores in first grade on mathematics achievement in fourth grade. Results are discussed in terms of both theoretical and policy implications.
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