Pulse-echo reconstruction of sound speed has long been considered a difficult problem within the domain of quantitative biomedical ultrasound. However, recent results (Jaeger 2015 Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41 235-50; Jaeger and Frenz 2015 Ultrasonics 62 299-304; Jaeger et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 4497-515) have demonstrated that pulse-echo reconstructions of sound speed are achievable by exploiting correlations in post-beamformed data from steered, plane-wave excitations in the presence of diffuse scatterers. Despite these recent advances, a coherent theoretical imaging framework for describing the approach and results is lacking in the literature. In this work, the problem of sound speed reconstruction using steered, plane-wave excitations is reformulated as a truncated convolutional problem, and the theoretical implications of this reformulation are explored. Additionally, a matrix-free algorithm is proposed that leverages the computational and storage advantages of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) while simultaneously avoiding FFT wraparound artifacts. In particular, the storage constraints of the approach are reduced down from to over full matrix reconstruction, making this approach a better candidate for large reconstructions on clinical machines. This algorithm was then tested in the open source simulation package k-Wave to assess its robustness to modeling error and resolution reduction was demonstrated under full-wave propagation conditions relative to ideal straight-ray simulations. The method was also validated in a phantom experiment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging