The Connection between MicroRNAs and Oral Cancer Pathogenesis: Emerging Biomarkers in Oral Cancer Management

Ciprian Osan, Sergiu Chira, Andreea Mihaela Nutu, Cornelia Braicu, Mihaela Baciut, Schuyler S. Korban, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Oral cancer is a common human malignancy that still maintains an elevated mortality rate despite scientific progress. Tumorigenesis is driven by altered gene expression patterns of proto-oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation, seem to play important roles in oral cancer development, progression, and tumor microenvironment modulation. As properties of microRNAs render them stable in diverse liquid biopsies, together with their differential expression signature in cancer cells, these features place microRNAs at the top of promising biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic values. In this review, we highlight eight expression levels and functions of the most relevant microRNAs involved in oral cancer development, progression, and microenvironment sustainability. Furthermore, we emphasize the potential of using these small RNA species as non-invasive biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancerous lesions. Conclusively, we highlight the perspectives and limitations of microRNAs as novel diagnostic tools, as well as therapeutic models.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1989
JournalGenes
Volume12
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2021

Keywords

  • oral cancer
  • oncomiRs
  • tumor suppressor miRs
  • tumor microenvironment
  • biomarkers
  • OncomiRs
  • Tumor suppressor miRs
  • Oral cancer
  • Tumor microenvironment
  • Biomarkers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Genetics

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