Our previous studies showed that both total cytoplasmic tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases isolated from senescent (24-30 month) female Wistar rat liver were less capable of supporting cell-free protein synthesis than were the same fractions isolated from adult (10-13 month) rat liver. The present study investigates the molecular basis for this age-related result. No significant age-related differences were found in the extent of aminoacylation of the liver cytoplasmic tRNA population, the total tRNA synthetase activity, the rate of aminoacylation of individual tRNAs, or in the overall complement of tRNA species as detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In homologous senescent aminoacylation assays, consisting of tRNAs and tRNA synthetases from senescent animals, alanine, arginine and aspartic acid were charged to a greater extent and methionine to a lesser extent compared to homologous adult assays. In heterologous assays, adult synthetases were significantly more active than senescent synthetases when charging isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline and glutamic acid, and less active when charging alanine, aspartic acid and serine. Also, senescent synthetases charged both adult and senescent tRNAs with methionine to a lesser extent than did adult synthetases. In homologous senescent assays with queuosine-containing tRNAs, asparagine, aspartic acid and histidine were charged to a greater extent and tyrosine to a lesser extent compared to homologous adult assays. Results with queuosine-tRNAs are discussed in terms of their potential ability to lower the efficiency of translation in senescent liver.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Biology