Obesity and elevated circulating cholesterol are risk factors for breast cancer recurrence, while the use of statins, cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors widely used for treating hypercholesterolemia, is associated with improved disease-free survival. Here, we show that cholesterol mediates the metastatic effects of a high-fat diet via its oxysterol metabolite, 27-hydroxycholesterol. Ablation or inhibition of CYP27A1, the enzyme responsible for the rate-limiting step in 27-hydroxycholesterol biosynthesis, significantly reduces metastasis in relevant animal models of cancer. The robust effects of 27-hydroxycholesterol on metastasis requires myeloid immune cell function, and it was found that this oxysterol increases the number of polymorphonuclear-neutrophils and γδ-T cells at distal metastatic sites. The pro-metastatic actions of 27-hydroxycholesterol requires both polymorphonuclear-neutrophils and γδ-T cells, and 27-hydroxycholesterol treatment results in a decreased number of cytotoxic CD8+T lymphocytes. Therefore, through its actions on γδ-T cells and polymorphonuclear-neutrophils, 27-hydroxycholesterol functions as a biochemical mediator of the metastatic effects of hypercholesterolemia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)