Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen, long recognized as an agent of blinding eye disease and more recently as a common sexually transmitted infection. Recently, two eukaryotic histone H1-like proteins, designated Hc1 and Hc2, have been identified in Chlamydia. Expression of Hc1 in recombinant Escherichia coli produces chromatin condensation similar to nucleoid condensation observed late in the parasite's own life cycle. In contrast, chromatin decondensation, observed during the early life cycle, accompanies down-regulation and nondetection of Hc1 and Hc2 among internalized organisms. We reasoned that the early upstream open reading frame (EUO) gene product might play a role in Hc1 degradation and nucleoid decondensation since it is expressed very early in the chlamydial life cycle. To explore this possibility, we fused the EUO coding region between amino acids 4 and 177 from C. trachomatis serovar L2 with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and examined the effects of fusion protein on Hc1 in vitro. The purified fusion protein was able to digest Hc1 completely within 1 h at 37°C. However, GST alone exhibited no Hc1-specific proteolytic activity. The chlamydial EUO-GST gene product also cleaves very-lysine-rich calf thymus histone H1 and chicken erythrocyte histone H5 but displays no measurable activity towards core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 or chlamydial RNA polymerase α-subunit. This proteolytic activity appears sensitive to the serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) and aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin but resistant to high temperature and other broad-spectrum protease inhibitors. The proteolytic activity specified by the EUO-GST fusion product selectively digested the C-terminal portion of chlamydial Hc1, the domain involved in DNA binding, while leaving the N terminus intact. At a molar equivalent ratio of 1:1 between Hc1 and DNA, the EUO gene product cleaves Hc1 complexed to DNA and this cleavage appears sufficient to initiate dissociation of DNA-Hc1 complexes. However, at a higher molar equivalent ratio of Hc1/DNA (10:1), there is partial protection conferred upon Hc1 to an extent that prevents dissociation of DNA-Hc1 complexes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology