The algogenic-induced nociceptive flexion test in mice: Studies on sensitivity of the test and stress on animals

Makoto Inoue, Md Harunor Rashid, Toshiko Kawashima, Misaki Matsumoto, Takehiko Maeda, Shiroh Kishioka, Hiroshi Ueda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Recently we developed a new technique, known as peripheral nociception test or algogenic-induced nociceptive flexion (ANF) test, to study the in vivo signal transduction of pain at the peripheral nerve endings in mice. In the present report, we examined the sensitivity of the method to detect pain signal and the stresses induced by the test on experimental animals. In the algogenic-induced biting and licking (ABL) test, bradykinin could not induce significant biting-licking response even at a dose of 1nmol. It induced significant biting-licking response only at 10nmol. However, with the ANF test, 100fmol of bradykinin was enough to produce sharp and significant nociceptive flexion response. Similarly, substance P, ATP and ONO-54918-07, a stable prostaglandin I2 agonist, induced nociceptive flexion response in ANF test at much lower doses than needed to induce biting-licking responses in ABL test. Next, we measured the plasma corticosterone level after different nociception tests, which is a measure of stress on animals due to experimental manipulations. However, no significant rise in corticosterone level was observed with ANF test. Altogether, these findings indicate that the ANF test is a highly sensitive and less stressful technique to study in vivo mechanisms of pain at the peripheral nerve ending.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-281
Number of pages7
JournalBrain Research Bulletin
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 15 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Algogenic
  • Nociceptors
  • Pain
  • Peripheral
  • Plasma corticosterone
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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