Testing tools and physical, chemical, and microbiological characterization of microencapsulated systems

Yun Yin, Xueqian Su, Keith R. Cadwallader

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Microencapsulation is a versatile technology and is the preferred means to protect volatile flavor compounds. Encapsulated flavors comprise about 20%–25% of the total flavor market. For this reason, much effort has focused on improving flavor encapsulation performance over the past few decades. There are two main objectives pursued through encapsulation: (1) protect the flavor compounds during storage (based on the use of amorphous carbohydrates) and (2) control the release of the flavors during food processing or end-use. Extensive encapsulation technologies (spray-drying, spray-cooling, coacervation, melt extrusion, fluidized bed, molecular inclusion, freeze-drying, electro-spinning, electric-spraying, and microbial cells) are available, which can provide specific functionalities (physicochemical stability, safety stability, and organoleptic qualities). The market distribution of encapsulated flavors according to the production technologies is 80%–90% by spray-drying, 3%–9% by spray chilling, 2%–4% by melt extrusion, and <1% by melt injection, and other technologies produce 1%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMicroencapsulation in the Food Industry
Subtitle of host publicationA Practical Implementation Guide
Number of pages34
ISBN (Electronic)9780128216835
ISBN (Print)9780128225301
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Microencapsulation
  • chemical characterization
  • encapsulation technologies
  • physical characterization
  • safety testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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