Temperature-insensitive composite micromechanical resonators

Renata Melamud, Saurabh A. Chandorkar, Bongsang Kim, Hyung Kyu Lee, James C. Salvia, Gaurav Bahl, Matthew A. Hopcroft, Thomas W. Kenny

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Utilizing silicon and silicon dioxide's opposing temperature coefficients of Young's modulus, composite resonators with zero linear temperature coefficient of frequency are fabricated and characterized. The resulting resonators have a quadratic temperature coefficient of frequency of approximately-20 ppb/°C2 and a tunable turnover temperature in the-55 °C 125 °C range. Reduction of the temperature dependence of frequency is shown in flexural-mode resonators (700 kHz1.3 MHz) and extensional-mode ring resonators (20 MHz). The linear temperature coefficient of Young's modulus of silicon dioxide is extracted from measurements to be +179 ppm/°C. The composite resonators are fabricated and packaged in a CMOS-compatible wafer-scale hermetic encapsulation process. The long-term stability of the resonators is monitored for longer than six months. Although most devices exhibit less than 2 ppm frequency drift, there is evidence of dielectric charging in the silicon dioxide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5288574
Pages (from-to)1409-1419
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Composite
  • Resonators
  • Temperature coefficient
  • Temperature compensation
  • Young's modulus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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