Temperature dependence of silicon hardness: Experimental evidence of phase transformations

Vladislav Domnich, Yvonne Aratyn, Waltraud M. Kriven, Yury Gogotsi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The hardness of silicon is known to be nearly independent of temperature below a certain transition point, and to decrease steeply thereafter. Based on high-temperature Berkovich nanoindentation at 25-500 °C and Raman microanalysis of Vickers indentations produced in single-crystal silicon at 25-750 °C, we present evidence of a transformation into a high-pressure metallic Si phase during indentation at temperatures up to about 350 °C. We show that this transformation pressure determines silicon hardness below the transition temperature. We also report the temperature stability ranges of different metastable phases of silicon, including a new Si-XIII phase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-41
Number of pages9
JournalReviews on Advanced Materials Science
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Mar 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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