In aerodynamic systems, fluids and surfaces interact with each other and exchange energy. Flow/surface viscous interactions occur in any flying body, being that an airplane, a bird, an asteroid penetrating a planetary atmosphere, or a missile. When a test article is immersed in the gas stream of a wind tunnel, viscous interactions take place at the model’s surface determining a certain response of the model-flow system and changing the energy content of the flow. In all these and many other cases, energy is exchanged in the form of aerodynamic heating.
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