Purpose: Different forms of social learning have been explored to act as complements to conventional extension services. This paper examines the possibility of using vocational training to high school students who in turn transfer information to their parents. Design/Methodology/approach: We conduct a randomized control trial in nine communities in rural Nicaragua and evaluate changes in the knowledge of agricultural technologies, access to credit markets, and technology adoption for parents and students using a difference-in-difference approach. Findings: Our results show improvements in knowledge-based outcomes for students and parents, and increased access to credit markets and adoption of agricultural technologies by parents. Practical Implications: Given the increase in schooling across developing countries, our results suggest that programs designed around within-family information diffusion can complement more conventional forms of agricultural extension. Theoretical Implications: Little explored channels of information exchange can act as complements or substitutes of conventional extension models, where those are weak or non-existent. Originality/Value: This paper is one of the first to explore and evaluate the teacher-student-parent of information exchange as an alternative for agricultural technology diffusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-326
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Agricultural Education and Extension
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2023


  • Technology adoption
  • agricultural extension
  • credit markets
  • randomized control trial
  • social learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Education
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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