Teaching Negotiation Skills through Practice and Reflection with Virtual Humans

Mark Core, David Traum, H. Chad Lane, William Swartout, Jonathan Gratch, Michael Van Lent, Stacy Marsella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although the representation of physical environments and behaviors will continue to play an important role in simulation-based training, an emerging challenge is the representation of virtual humans with rich mental models (e.g., including emotions, trust) that interact through conversational as well as physical behaviors. The motivation for such simulations is training soft skills such as leadership, cultural awareness, and negotiation, where the majority of actions are conversational, and the problem solving involves consideration of the emotions, attitudes, and desires of others.The educational power of such simulations can be enhanced by the integration of an intelligent tutoring system to support learners' understanding of the effect of their actions on virtual humans and how they might improve their performance. In this paper, we discuss our efforts to build such virtual humans, along with an accompanying intelligent tutor, for the domain of negotiation and cultural awareness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)685-701
Number of pages17
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Virtual humans
  • conversation strategies
  • emotion modeling
  • explanation systems
  • intelligent tutoring systems
  • negotiation training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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