Tactical generation in a free constituent order language

Dilek Zeynep Hakkani, Kemal Oflazer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper describes tactical generation in Turkish, a free constituent order language, in which the order of the constituents may change according to the information structure of the sentences to be generated. In the absence of any information regarding the information structure of a sentence (i.e. topic, focus, background, etc.), the constituents of the sentence obey a default order, but the order is almost freely changeable, depending on the constraints of the text flow or discourse. We have used a recursively structured finite state machine (much like a Recursive Transition Network (RTN)) for handling the changes in constituent order, implemented as a right-linear grammar backbone. Our implementation environment is the GenKit system, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Trans-lation. Morphological realization has been implemented using an external morphological analysis/generation component which performs concrete morpheme selection and handles morphographemic processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-134
Number of pages20
JournalNatural Language Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Artificial Intelligence


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