Systematics of the world genera of Cardiochilinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

P. C. Dangerfield, A. D. Austin, J. B. Whitfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The genera of Cardiochilinae are revised on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of qualitative and morphometric characters. Partition homogeneity testing was used to evaluate the congruence between qualitative and morphometric data sets. Three most-parsimonious cladograms of 217.9 steps were found when morphometric characters were ordered and fractionally reweighted depending on the number of states. Sixteen monophyletic genera are recognised for the subfamily, with six described as new: Asiacardiochiles Telenga, stat. rev. (Australasian and Palaearctic), Austerocardiochiles, gen. nov. (type species: Cardiochiles pollinator Dangerfield & Austin) (Afrotropical, Oriental, Australasian and Palaearctic), Bohayella Belokobylskij (Afrotropical, Oriental, Australasian, Nearctic and Palaearctic), Cardiochiles Nees ab Esenbeck, s. sir. (Cosmopolitan), Eurycardiochiles, gen. nov. (type species: C. occidentalis Dangerfield & Austin) (Australasian and Oriental), Gwenia, gen. nov. (type species: C. turneri Dangerfield & Austin) (Australasian), Hansonia Dangerfield (Neotropical), Hartemita Cameron (Oriental), Heteropteron Brullé (Neotropical), Hymenicis, gen. nov. (type species: C. noongarensis Dangerfield & Austin) (Australasian), Latitergum, gen. nov. (type species: C. areyongensis Dangerfield & Austin) (Australasian), Pseudcardiochilus Hedwig (Australasian and Palaearctic), Psilommiscus Enderlein, stat. rev. (Oriental), Retusigaster, gen. nov. (type species: C. rubidus Mao) (Nearctic and Palaearctic), Schoenlandella Cameron (Cosmopolitan) and Toxonenron Say (Afrotropical, Nearctic, Neotropical, introduced into Oriental). Wesmaelella Spinola and Neocardiochiles Szépligeti are placed as junior synonyms of Heteropteron. Cardiochiles ruficollis (Szépligeti), stat. rev., is brought out of synonymy with C. saltator (F.), a lectotype has been designated for S. testaceipes (Cameron) and Cardiochiles croceum (Cameron), comb. nov. is transferred to Phanerotoma Wesmael (Cheloninae). Diagnoses, information on distribution and hosts, and an illustrated key to genera are provided. After examination of all available holotypes, 169 of the 182 described species are placed in the new generic classification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)917-976
Number of pages60
JournalInvertebrate Systematics
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


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