Synthesis of Pyridine- and Pyrazine-BF3 Complexes and Their Characterization in Solution and Solid State

Etienne Chénard, Andre Sutrisno, Lingyang Zhu, Rajeev S. Assary, Jeffrey A. Kowalski, John L. Barton, Jeffery A. Bertke, Danielle L. Gray, Fikile R. Brushett, Larry A. Curtiss, Jeffrey S. Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Following the discovery of the redox-active 1,4-bis-BF3-quinoxaline complex, we undertook a structure-activity study with the objective to understand the active nature of the quinoxaline complex. Through systematic synthesis and characterization, we have compared complexes prepared from pyridine and pyrazine derivatives, as heterocyclic core analogues. This paper reports the structural requirements that give rise to the electrochemical features of the 1,4-bis-BF3-quinoxaline adduct. Using solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, the role of aromatic ring fusion and nitrogen incorporation in bonding and electronics was elucidated. We establish the boron atom location and its interaction with its environment from 1D and 2D solution NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, and 11B solid-state NMR experiments. Crystallographic analysis of single crystals helped to correlate the boron geometry with 11B quadrupolar coupling constant (CQ) and asymmetry parameter (nQ), extracted from 11B solid-state NMR spectra. Additionally, computations based on density functional theory were performed to predict electrochemical behavior of the BF3-heteroaromatic complexes. We then experimentally measured electrochemical potential using cyclic voltammetry and found that the redox potentials and CQ values are similarly affected by electronic changes in the complexes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8461-8471
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Issue number16
StatePublished - Apr 28 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Energy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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