Superconducting Processor Modulated VCSELs for 4K High-Speed Optical Data Link

Wenning Fu, Haonan Wu, Milton Feng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Superconducting processor based on single flux quantum (SFQ) technology is a promising solution for cryogenic computing with high-speed operation at extremely low power. However, energy-efficient data link from $\sim 4\text{K}$ operation to room temperature (RT) users has been remained as a key challenger to be resolved. In this work, we report the 5K performance of 51.56 Gb/s PAM-4 optical data link from a VCSEL, coupled by free-space optics inside cryostat to RT receiver through cryostat optical window. Finally, a superconducting bit pattern generator (BPG) is used to modulate a VCSEL at 4 K: 12.5 Gb/s NRZ error-free optical data transmission and 20 Gb/s NRZ open eye-diagrams are demonstrated via an OM4 fiber coupled directly to the VCSEL at 4 K inside cryostat and linked to the outside receiver at RT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022


  • cryogenics
  • data transfer
  • high speed modulation
  • optical interconnects
  • supercomputers
  • superconducting circuits
  • Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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