Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load

M. Yanina Pepino, Courtney D. Tiemann, Bruce W. Patterson, Burton M. Wice, Samuel Klein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE-Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), such as sucralose, have been reported to have metabolic effects in animalmodels. However, the relevance of these findings to human subjects is not clear. We evaluated the acute effects of sucralose ingestion on the metabolic response to an oral glucose load in obese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Seventeen obese subjects (BMI 42.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) who did not use NNS and were insulin sensitive (based on a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score ≤2.6) underwent a 5-h modified oral glucose tolerance test on two separate occasions preceded by consuming either sucralose (experimental condition) or water (control condition) 10 min before the glucose load in a randomized crossover design. Indices of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (SI), and insulin clearance rates were estimated by using minimal models of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide kinetics. RESULTS-Compared with the control condition, sucralose ingestion caused 1) a greater incremental increase in peak plasma glucose concentrations (4.2 ± 0.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.03), 2) a 20 ± 8% greater incremental increase in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (P < 0.03), 3) a 22± 7% greater peak insulin secretion rate (P < 0.02), 4) a 7 ± 4% decrease in insulin clearance (P = 0.04), and 5) a 23 ± 20% decrease in SI (P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between conditions in active glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon incremental AUC, or indices of the sensitivity of the β-cell response to glucose. CONCLUSIONS-These data demonstrate that sucralose affects the glycemic and insulin responses to an oral glucose load in obese people who do not normally consume NNS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2530-2535
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume36
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

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trichlorosucrose
Insulin
Glucose
Sweetening Agents
Area Under Curve
Insulin Resistance
Eating
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
C-Peptide
Glucose Tolerance Test
Glucagon
Cross-Over Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing

Cite this

Pepino, M. Y., Tiemann, C. D., Patterson, B. W., Wice, B. M., & Klein, S. (2013). Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load. Diabetes Care, 36(9), 2530-2535. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-2221

Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load. / Pepino, M. Yanina; Tiemann, Courtney D.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Wice, Burton M.; Klein, Samuel.

In: Diabetes Care, Vol. 36, No. 9, 01.09.2013, p. 2530-2535.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pepino, MY, Tiemann, CD, Patterson, BW, Wice, BM & Klein, S 2013, 'Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load', Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 2530-2535. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-2221
Pepino, M. Yanina ; Tiemann, Courtney D. ; Patterson, Bruce W. ; Wice, Burton M. ; Klein, Samuel. / Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load. In: Diabetes Care. 2013 ; Vol. 36, No. 9. pp. 2530-2535.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE-Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), such as sucralose, have been reported to have metabolic effects in animalmodels. However, the relevance of these findings to human subjects is not clear. We evaluated the acute effects of sucralose ingestion on the metabolic response to an oral glucose load in obese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Seventeen obese subjects (BMI 42.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) who did not use NNS and were insulin sensitive (based on a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score ≤2.6) underwent a 5-h modified oral glucose tolerance test on two separate occasions preceded by consuming either sucralose (experimental condition) or water (control condition) 10 min before the glucose load in a randomized crossover design. Indices of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (SI), and insulin clearance rates were estimated by using minimal models of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide kinetics. RESULTS-Compared with the control condition, sucralose ingestion caused 1) a greater incremental increase in peak plasma glucose concentrations (4.2 ± 0.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.03), 2) a 20 ± 8{\%} greater incremental increase in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (P < 0.03), 3) a 22± 7{\%} greater peak insulin secretion rate (P < 0.02), 4) a 7 ± 4{\%} decrease in insulin clearance (P = 0.04), and 5) a 23 ± 20{\%} decrease in SI (P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between conditions in active glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon incremental AUC, or indices of the sensitivity of the β-cell response to glucose. CONCLUSIONS-These data demonstrate that sucralose affects the glycemic and insulin responses to an oral glucose load in obese people who do not normally consume NNS.",
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