Subgrain geometrically necessary dislocation density mapping in spalled Ta in three dimensions

Wyatt A. Witzen, McLean P. Echlin, Marie Agathe Charpagne, Tresa M. Pollock, Irene J. Beyerlein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this work, the intragranular distributions of the densities of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) generated in a polycrystalline tantalum (Ta) sample loaded in shock compression to spall are investigated. The sample studied is a highly resolved three-dimensional (3D) map of the orientations, grain boundary morphology, and voids across a 0.276mm3 (with sample dimensions of 688.5µm × 669µm × 600µm) region of the microstructure about the spall plane obtained by TriBeam tomography. We present a formulation for calculating the crystallographic screw and edge character GND densities at a material point within body centered cubic (BCC) crystals when provided any number of potential slip systems or modes. Combining the 3D characterization, GND formulation, and a sample containing ≈ 6000 grains, we sought statistically relevant correlations between GND density per grain with grain size, grain orientation, void formation, and proximity from the spall plane. We show that GND density per grain increases with decreasing distance from the spall plane. Most grains had heterogeneously distributed GND densities but were free of any detectable voids, at least within the ≈ 1.5µm resolution of the characterization technique. It is found that the GND density for most grains is insensitive to grain size and grain orientation. Only the fraction of grains with the highest GND densities tended to have a [001] parallel to shock-direction orientation. Intragranular 3D maps of GNDs reveals that grains that contain voids have high GND density concentrations in the intragranular region immediately surrounding the void. The local intragranular GND mapping also showed voids that are connected to grain boundaries preferred to grow into the grain with the larger size, regardless of orientation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number118366
JournalActa Materialia
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • A. Dislocations
  • A. Microstructures
  • B. Metallic material
  • B. Polycrystalline material
  • Three-Dimensional Electron Backscatter Diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys


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