Subfilamentary Networks Cause Cycle-to-Cycle Variability in Memristive Devices

Christoph Baeumer, Richard Valenta, Christoph Schmitz, Andrea Locatelli, Tevfik Onur Menteş, Steven P. Rogers, Alessandro Sala, Nicolas Raab, Slavomir Nemsak, Moonsub Shim, Claus M. Schneider, Stephan Menzel, Rainer Waser, Regina Dittmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A major obstacle for the implementation of redox-based memristive memory or logic technology is the large cycle-to-cycle and device-to-device variability. Here, we use spectromicroscopic photoemission threshold analysis and operando XAS analysis to experimentally investigate the microscopic origin of the variability. We find that some devices exhibit variations in the shape of the conductive filament or in the oxygen vacancy distribution at and around the filament. In other cases, even the location of the active filament changes from one cycle to the next. We propose that both effects originate from the coexistence of multiple (sub)filaments and that the active, current-carrying filament may change from cycle to cycle. These findings account for the observed variability in device performance and represent the scientific basis, rather than prior purely empirical engineering approaches, for developing stable memristive devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6921-6929
Number of pages9
JournalACS Nano
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 25 2017


  • PEEM
  • graphene
  • memristive devices
  • resistive switching
  • variability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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