Sub-5 nm Contacts and Induced p-n Junction Formation in Individual Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons

Pin Chiao Huang, Hongye Sun, Mamun Sarker, Christopher M. Caroff, Gregory S. Girolami, Alexander Sinitskii, Joseph W. Lyding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper demonstrates the fabrication of nanometer-scale metal contacts on individual graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and the use of these contacts to control the electronic character of the GNRs. We demonstrate the use of a low-voltage direct-write STM-based process to pattern sub-5 nm metallic hafnium diboride (HfB2) contacts directly on top of single GNRs in an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (UHV-STM), with all the fabrication performed on a technologically relevant semiconductor silicon substrate. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) data not only verify the expected metallic and semiconducting character of the contacts and GNR, respectively, but also show induced band bending and p-n junction formation in the GNR due to the metal-GNR work function difference. Contact engineering with different work function metals obviates the need to create GNRs with different characteristics by complex chemical doping. This is a demonstration of the successful fabrication of precise metal contacts and local p-n junction formation on single GNRs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17771-17778
Number of pages8
JournalACS Nano
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 26 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • electron-beam-induced deposition
  • graphene nanoribbon
  • hafnium diboride nanowires
  • nanostructures
  • scanning tunneling microscopy
  • scanning tunneling spectroscopy
  • silicon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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